Following the definitive end to fighting, towns, including their homes and fields, must be thoroughly cleared of explosives. This task is also the responsibility of governments or international bodies with this expertise.
Another element of insecurity for families relates to their having to face their neighbors, some of whom took advantage of the presence of ISIS to plunder their houses (primarily in Qaraqosh). Similarly, land-grabbing took place in Bartella by the Shia Iraqi (Shabback) population in the village’s surrounding area.
More generally, there is an urgent need for active peace and reconciliation efforts, as currently no one assumes responsibility for the peace among the diverse civilian communities. Crucially, the legitimacy of Iraqi Christian presence in the area needs to be understood and accepted by other communities.